Water – Content


(Difficulties, basic issues)


(The natural water cycle and human impact)

  • Substance flows, cycles
  • Water demand and consumption (types of raw water, consumer groups, water demand for different buildings, drinking water, wervice water, precipitation, public water supply )
  • Waste water (Definition, sorts of waste water, ingredients of waste water, drainage of settlements, sewer Systems, conventional rainwater drainage and its impact)
  • Conventional waste water treatment (obligation for connection, conventional processes)

Basic conditions

(goal- and result-oriented analysis of the local requirements, drinking water, rainwater, sewage)


(Central objectives, objectives on architecture and urban and regional planning)


(Means and ways for a sustainable association with water, Requirements on architecture and urban and regional planning)

  • Reducing drinking water (+ Substitution)
    • Technology and behaviour (Reducing water consumption and technical installations)
    • Grey water recycling (reasons, grey water recycling plants, suitable application areas, requirements)
    • Rainwater utilisation
  • Alternative wastewater treatment (ecological waste water concepts: separation of waste water streams; aerobic/anaerobic techniques, their volume and area requirements...)
    • Methods of preliminary clarification (Multi-chamber septic tanks , two chamber sedimentation tanks)
    • Natural processes in waste water treatment (Reed-Bed Treatment Systems / Soil filters, Aerated and non-aerated waste water ponds )
    • Technical aerobic sewage treatment (Activated-sludge process, Trickling filter clarification , Biological contactor process, Membrane filter processes)
    • Closed substance cycle management
  • Sustainable rainwater management (Prerequisites and considerations at an urban level)
    • Rain water retention (rainwater run-off control )
      • Green roof and infiltration roof (Principle, areas of application, Intensive Green Roofs / Extensive Green Roofs, runoff coefficient, use of rainwater, constructions)
      • Retention pond (Structure, areas of application)
      • Retention basin (Structure, areas of application)
    • Rain water usage (Principle and elements of rainwater utilisation systems, Dimensioning and cost-effectiveness )
    • Rain water percolation (Criteria for rainwater infiltration measures and systems, technical specification, regulation)
      • Surface percolation (Permeable surface percolation, trough percolation, basin percolation)
      • Underground percolation (Soakaway pit, French drain)
      • Combined percolation systems (Trough-French drain-system)

Example Projects

Illustration sources